Black Diversity in Metropolitan America
John R. Logan
and Glenn Deane
Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and
University at Albany
August 15, 2003
This report is based on data from the 1990 and
2000 Census of Population, analyzed with the assistance of Mumford Center
researcher Hyoung-jin Shin.?This report updates the report
released February 17, 2003 that used the Census 2000 Supplemental Survey (for
details, see Technical Notes page).
Early reports from Census 2000 about the
growing diversity of the American population have emphasized the large
increases in the Hispanic and Asian minorities in many regions of the
country. There are also substantial differences within the black population
that are worthy of attention.
The number of black
Americans with recent roots in sub-Saharan Africa nearly tripled during the
1990’s.The number with origins in
the Caribbean increased by over 60 percent.
Census 2000 shows that Afro-Caribbeans in the United States number
over 1.5 million, larger than some more visible national-origin groups such
as Cubans and Koreans.Africans
number over 600 thousand.?In some
major metropolitan regions, these "new" black groups amount to 20% or more of
the black population.And nationally
nearly 25% of the growth of the black population between 1990 and 2000 was
due to people from Africa and the Caribbean.
This report summarizes what is known about the social
backgrounds and residential locations of non-Hispanic blacks in metropolitan
America.Among blacks, both the Afro-Caribbean population (people from such
places as Jamaica and Haiti) and people with recent sub-Saharan African
ancestry (from places like Nigeria and Ghana) are distinguished from the
longer established African Americans.
- It is well known that the socioeconomic profile of
non-Hispanic blacks is unfavorable compared to whites, Asians, and
Hispanics.There is also striking
variation within America’s black population.The social and economic profile of Afro-Caribbeans and Africans is far
above that of African Americans, and even better than that of Hispanics.
- Afro-Caribbeans are heavily concentrated on the East Coast.Six out of ten live in the New York,
Miami, and Fort Lauderdale metropolitan regions.More than half are Haitian in Miami;
Haitians are well represented but outnumbered by Jamaicans in New York
and Fort Lauderdale.
- America’s African population, on the other hand, is much more
largest numbers are in Washington and New York.In both places the majority are from
West Africa, especially Ghana and Nigeria. East Africa, including Ethiopia and Somalia, is the other
African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans and Africans are highly segregated
from whites.But these black ethnic
groups overlap only partly with one another in the neighborhoods where
they live.Segregation among
black ethnic groups reflects important social differences between them.
the metropolitan areas where they live in largest numbers, Africans tend
to live in neighborhoods with higher median income and education level
than African Americans and Afro-Caribbeans.In these metro areas Afro-Caribbeans tend to live in
neighborhoods with a higher percent homeowners than either African
Americans or Africans.
More complete information on the size and residential
patterns of these non-Hispanic black groups for every metropolis in 1990 and
2000 is available on the Mumford Center web page: